<Class 6: Tutoring Writing......................................................................................................Class 8: Special Education and UDL>

Key Topics

Learning English as a New Language............
ELL Program Types............
Bilingual Education..............
Language Immersion Learning

Not for the assignment, but for your use in tutoring:

Link to A Kid-Friendly Language Dictionary and Pictionary as a resource for tutoring students

Learning English as a New Language

external image 320px-GoldenGateBridge-001.jpg

Choose 3 adjectives to describe the bridge in the photo.

Write those words BEFORE you hear 'Shakespeare Had Roses All Wrong'.

120px-Podcast-icon.svg.pngListen to Shakespeare Had Roses All Wrong

1. Analyzing the words you chose to describe the bridge, do you think any convey feminine or masculine qualities?

2. The podcast describes how gendered language influences people's thinking.
From hearing this information how would you describe to a friend the ways that gendered language changes or informs people's thinking about the world?

Where does English originate? Do we really know?

Origin of English Words
Origin of English Words


LEP: Limited English Proficient

Students generally from language-minority households who are not proficient in standard English which is taught in schools.
Federal programs and school systems may also identify as LEP students as those who have difficulty not only speaking English, but also reading, writing, or understanding it.

NEP: Non-English Proficient

Students come to school with no or with minimal English proficiency.

FEP: Fluent English Proficient

Students are former LEP students who demonstrate mastery of English in all 4 domains: writing, reading, speaking, listening.


1. Sheltered instruction integrates language instruction with content instruction PART OF EACH DAY out of the classroom to provide grade-level content while developing English proficiency. During the rest of the day in class, there may be a translator present assisting a student to understand what is being taught. The translator is present for two hours of the entire day.

2. Language Immersion
  • IMMERSION ENABLES AN ENTIRE CLASS TO LEARN A NEW LANGUAGE TOGETHER and students are all at similar levels of knowledge.
For instance, half the day students are speaking English and half the day students are speaking Spanish.

FULL immersion means all of the class instruction is in the NEW language.

PARTIAL immersion means half of the class instruction is in the NEW language.

3. Language Submersion
  • SUBMERSION ENABLES ONE OR TWO OR A FEW STUDENTS TO LEARN A NEW LANGUAGE by being “thrown into the ocean to learn how to swim” in class where everyone else speaks their home language of English
One, two or three students are learning English by being in the class where everyone else speaks English as their native language.


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Transitional Bilingual Education involves INSTRUCTION in a child’s home language, typically for no more than three years, to ensure that students do not fall behind in subject areas like math, science, and social studies while they are learning English.

The goal is to help students transition to mainstream English-only classrooms as quickly as possible, and the linguistic goal of such programs is English acquisition only. The overwhelming majority of bilingual programs in the U.S. are transitional.

Two-Way or Dual Language Bilingual Education programs are designed to help native and non-native English speakers become bilingual and biliterate. Ideally in such programs in a U.S. context, half of the students will be native speakers of English and half of the students will be native speakers of a minority language such as Spanish.

Dual Language programs are less commonly permitted in US schools, although research indicates they are very effective in helping students learn English well and aiding the long-term performance of English learners in school (Center for Applied Linguistics, 2005; Thomas & Collier, 1997; Lindholm-Leary, 2000).

3. WHICH of the three ELL program types would you choose to learn a new language yourself?
Please explain your reasons for choosing it.

4. What Bilingual Education model would you select for your own learning? Why?

Percent of People 5 Years and Over Who Speak Spanish at Home: 2008 (according to the U.S. Census
Percent of People 5 Years and Over Who Speak Spanish at Home: 2008 (according to the U.S. Census

Computer.png Explore the US Census Language Data Map

5. Describe two surprises you found interesting as you explored the US Census Language Data Map.
What does the map make you think about in regards to bilingual education in schools?

6. Would you move somewhere English was not spoken to learn a new language? Why or why not?

7. Learning a new language requires making mistakes daily. If you were living in a place where English is not spoken, what resources, online, on paper, in-person, would you use to help you to become a speaker of the new language?


Marine and Basketball.jpg

Can we communicate and interact without speaking the same language?

Hear Soccer Team Provides Distraction For Refugees

Hear Miami's Coral Way Elementary School Aims For 'Biliterate' Education

8. Kids on this soccer team who do not speak a common language are all able to play, learn and be friends together. Analyze why and identify methods from the soccer experience that could be incorporated into classroom experiences to create inclusive learning for multi-lingual students learning to speak English.

9. Miami's Coral Way Elementary School unites teachers and families in a common goal for the children: creating a bicultural, biliterate and bilingual student experience, K-8, whether kids speak English or Spanish when they enter the school.
Bullet list four ways the school's methods accomplish this goal for every child every year.

10. What materials, activities and games introduced in TEAMS assignments or in class workshops during the past four weeks do you think are interesting and exciting activities that will enable ELL students who do not speak English and English speakers to play or do together so both are enjoying learning?
List your choices and explain why you think these will enable learning together for both groups.

Additional Resources

John Cleese Explains the Brain
  • Actor John Cleese uses 'jibberish' to explain the brain in a humorous way - a unique glance into how ELL students feel constantly.

This Chinese-American Cartoonist Forces us to Face Stereotypes

This Graphic Novelist Reading Ambassador Tells Kids to Reach Beyond their Comfort Zone

Screen Shot 2016-10-28 at 12.13.15 PM.pngBob's Lesson for ELL Week

In addition to English (237.8 million) and Spanish (40.5 million), what languages are spoken in U.S. homes by at least 1 million people?
Chinese, including Mandarin and Cantonese (3.4 million)
Tagalog, including Filipino (1.7 million)
Vietnamese (1.5 million)
Arabic (1.2 million)
French (1.2 million)
Korean (1.1 million)

Link to data from 2016 American Community Service for more information

Place sheets with everyday words from 7 different language or cultural groups on the wall and ask tutors in groups of 2 or 3 to determine where the words came from.
  • Greek, Italian, Native American, Arabic, German, Spanish, French
  • Point out how the English language is really a composite of multiple languages and cultures.




Native Americanchipmunkwoodchuckmoosequahogsquash




  • Point out that the English language is always changing as groups use words from their experience and those words convey shared meanings to members of the those groups. The words used in this activity are from social media and young people's experience.
    • According to the Merriam-Webster website, to be included in the dictionary, a word must “be used in a substantial number of citations that come from a wide range of publications over a considerable period of time.”

Activity: Give students a list of new words from the Merriam-Webster dictionary and ask them to define each word and use it in a sentence



Dog Whistle


Train Wreck

Hive mind



Dark Money



word salad


Activity: Give students a sample Frayer Model chart and explain how this tool can be used to support language learning in academic settings.

Frayer Model for Teaching Vocabulary and Comprehension

Ask students to create a Frayer model for math symbols and punctuation marks (these are symbols with embedded meanings just like some of the symbols students use in their text messages)

Kid-Friendly Examples

Language Arts: period, comma, semi-colon, exclamation point, dash, colon, quotation marks, question mark
Period = Stop Sign
Comma = Yield
Semi-Colon = Pause, more coming
Exclamation Point = Excitement Mark
Quotation Marks = Conversation Marks
Question Mark: Answer Needed

Math: plus sign, minus sign, multiplication sign, division sign, times sign, greater than and less than sign; parenthesis, equal sign, percent sign, parallel lines, perpendicular lines
+ Sign = and
- Sign = Take away
( ) = Answer me first
= Sign
x Multiplication
Division sign
Square Root
! factorial
Scientific Notation

Make the point that students in school, irregardless of what language they speak at home, are learning math, science, history and literature as new languages.

All Class Opener: Language Maps: World, United States and Massachusetts

Census Bureau Reports 350 Languages Spoken in U. S. Homes

A World of Languages

A Tapestry of Language: A Look at Languages Spoken by ELLs Across the U.S. from Middlebury Interactive Languages

What Language Does Your State Speak? from Slate.com

Percentage of Public School Students Who Are English Language Learners

Languages Other Than English Spoken at Home from the US Census

Screen Shot 2016-04-21 at 9.41.38 AM.pngHighest ELL Enrollment, Percentage and Growth Districts in Massachusetts

Modern Language Association Language Map

English by the Book: A Graphic Look from National Geographic, December 2013

Most Commonly Spoken Languages in Massachusetts LEP Population
From Mass Legal Services (June, 2011), the site contains detailed graphs and tables with information on different languages spoken in the home around the country, according to the US Census.

6 Most Spoken Languages in Greater Boston
  1. Spanish
  2. Portuguese
  3. Chinese
  4. French/Creole
  5. Russian
  6. Vietnamese

Digital Glossary from Common Sense Media

  • Decode teens’ shorthand in the digital world

Program Types/ Language Immersion Learning

Manhattan's Emma Lazarus High School
Manhattan's //Emma Lazarus High School//, all Ell Student Body

Pioneer Valley Chinese Immersion Charter School

Learning English as a New Language

Fall comic by Harry Bliss
Context is as important as vocabulary: Halloween comic

GoComics - Bilingual Students
GoComics presents a strip depicting a German girl speaking her native language with her father, alarming and impressing an American, English-speaking child.

La Historia de Omar, A Digital Story by Omar Ruvalcava
Two Teachers, Two Mindsets: as recounted by Omar.

A Digital Story by Gina Teixeira Rodriguez
The personal story of why Ms.Rodriguez is an ELL teacher.

ELL Resources for Tutoring

Mispronouncing Students' Names: A Slight That Can Cut Deep

NPR's Alt Latino: Latin Alternative Music and Rock En Espanol

Khan Academy in Multiple Languages

John Kyrk Science Interactive
Cell Biology
Communicating at a unknown rate by John Kirk. This is the home page in English of the link below.
Science experiences in many languages.

The Scale of the Universe

Wikipedia has the ability for all pages to be translated in to countless languages.
Multiple languages of Wikipedia

National Library of Virtual Manipulatives
NLVM has a number of interactive games and lessons that can be translated into French, Spanish, and Chinese.

ESL, ELL, Generation 1.5: Why These Terms are Important
  • A glossary of terms from NCTE

Screen Shot 2017-11-10 at 2.39.52 PM.pngTECHNOLOGY TOOLS FOR LANGUAGE LEARNING


iTranslate Voice to Voice

Reverso Free Translator, Speller, Grammar Checker

Free Translation

Google Translate

Picture or Visual Dictionaries/Pictionaries

Online English Dictionary

ESOL Help: Online Picture Dictionary

Spanish Dictionary/Translation
The world leader in Spanish translation and conjunction.

Little Explorers Dictionary


Merriam-Webster Spanish Central



Stories by Gus on the Go


Speaking Pal English Tutor


Fluent U


Language Learning Resources for English Speakers

Multilingual Translation Dictionary

Spanish Vocabuluary

Khan Academy Language Learning

BBC Languages: Italian

Learn Italian

Coffee Break Spanish

Labeling Animals in Italian

Duo Lingo
Learn a language for free on your computer, phone or tablet!

Practice phrases in the language you are learning and utilize a dictionary: the apps speak!

Bilingual Picture Books

The Three Ninja Pigs -Corey Rosen Schwartz & Dan Santat

2017 Bilingual Children's Books, School Library Journal (December 2017)

9 Bilingual Children's Books That Make Learning a New Language Easy

1-2-3 Time


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Ham and Eggs Antonio Cruz Nava
The video filmed by two cousins was an assignment for a high school course where they were using video to record memories. The students, bilingual speakers, recorded their uncle describing what he did upon entering the U.S. speaking no English when he went each day to order breakfast at the cafe. Here is how he learned new words. It is no longer linked to YouTube.