Researchers in psychology have been studying STEM fields (science, technology, engineering, and math) and a gender gap phenomenon. A recent study from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign suggests that "children can adopt beliefs from information they hear about their gender," through literature, television and media, toys, and conversations with adults.

"A girl who hears that “girls are bad at math” can internalize that message, believe she IS bad at math, and do worse at math because of it." Maggie Severns, Future Tense, June 14, 2012

1.Apply your knowledge of what produces growth and fixed mindsets to how you feel about learning mathematics. How did you develop the mindset you possess?

2. View the Amazon pages for Boys' Toys and Girls' Toys to evaluate how the toy choices might contribute to the outcomes you read in U.S. Girls Less Confident They Can Learn Computer Science.

3. Describe your response to One Teen's Story of Science Sexism if this event had happened to a female friend of yours.

4. The podcast, How One College Is Changing the Tech Gender Gap, reports 18% of U. S. graduates with computer science degrees are female. Bullet list four changes to teaching and learning that Harvey Mudd College is doing to attract women to the computer science program.

5. If you were on a committee creating a program of study to attract and interest female students in computer science courses, what would you suggest adding to Harvey Mudd's program?

GAMES & GAMING

Online games offer simulations for learning about real life situations and problem solving.

6. Understanding the report, bullet list three facts you didn't know before reading, 'One Paycheck Away From the Street'?

7. Applying the experience of playing Spent, what choices did you face that are examples of the information in 'One Paycheck Away From the Street'.

8. Throughout K-12, in math classes, did you play online games or use a gaming system to help you learn math? Are you playing online games now that contain mathematics? (Angry Birds is all math and physics.)

This is NOT part of the assignment.
If you are interested, our TransformingTech wiki has more resources on games and gaming for learning.

ONLINE TUTORIALS

Khan Academy, is an online tutor for elementary, middle, high school, and college students learning astronomy, biology, calculus, chemistry, geography and more, has the mission "to provide a world-class education" experience free online to everyone.

Salman Khan's original intent for creating his tutoring site dramatically changed when users he had not planned for found the videos.

9. How would you summarize Khan's initial intent for his videos and compare that to what Khan Academy is now? Would you conclude that this change resulted because of amistake, having a growth mindset,creating a change of purpose or something else entirely?

10. What is Khan Academy offering schools and students to positively influence teaching and learning? (View 11:00-15:20 for details.)

CONCEPTUAL&PROCEDURAL

Hexahedron or "cube"

Conceptual learning helps you to think flexibly and use math information in many different ways.

Procedural learning helps you to learn a formula to solve a problem sometimes without knowing why the formula works.

We'll explore during class Tuesday differences between these two ways of learning.

Elementary and Middle School Tutors with Work Study or who want this training---

Math is only subject among all the least favorite choices in which the leading response was "I am bad at it!"

Today we are going to play a game of shapes and colors that promotes mathematical thinking and mathematical learning, both procedurally and conceptually. It is called Qwirkle.

Used to teach math problem-solving skills

improve children's capacity to think logically and solve problems in novel situations

Involves visual-spatial reasoning

Activities

Qwirkle consists of 108 wooden blocks of six shapes and six colors.

Briefly explain and demonstrate rules (procedures) for playing the game

Use game from the previous group to show how rows are built and points are scored

Create teams of 2 or 3

Ask each team to create a team name

Draw 6 blocks and begin game play

4th Grade Rules: Play as many blocks as you can during each turn

Ask team players to call the points as they get them

Play Qwirkle Against the Computer with the Qwirkle APP

The Secret History of the Rocket Girls: NASA 1942
Innovation Hub reveals the history of women mathematicians creating their own unit at the Jet Propulsion Lab in California because jet propulsion was considered not a serious science at that time.

"Female Teachers' Math Anxiety Affects Girls' Math Achievement," Math Anxiety and Teacher Attitudes: Research by psychologists at the University of Chicago indicates that female teachers' attitudes toward math affect female students' attitudes, particularly young girls.

In a study of first and second grade teachers, nearly all of whom were women, it was found that high math anxiety levels among teachers resulted in lower math achievement of girls over the course of the school year. It appears that the girls were learning and confirming the "girls are not good at math stereotype" from their teachers.

Boys were relatively unaffected by whether a female math teacher was anxious or not when teaching mathematics.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, February 2, 2010.

GoldieBlox Commercial
GoldieBlox, a toy company determined to raise the number of female engineers, uses their innovative toys to draw interest in the STEM subjects in young girls, which is often lost as they get older.

Motion Math: Fractions!
Students can learn fractions, decimals, and percentages in a hands-on tablet environment.

UK to teach coding to all students
British school children will learn to code starting this new school year w/the Code in a Box instructions from Codeacademy in NYC.

Zen and the art of coding
Shawnee, 14-years-old inside the Wyoming Girls' School, a secure juvenile justice facility, describes what learning to Code has given her.

Closing the Digital Divide on the Inside
Marketplace on NPR is looking at what technology offers teens who are in facilities where they should be offered education. In this report, Coding is what caught the interest of teen girls.

Is Coding the New Literacy?
How we think about what we are solving is the most important step in using computers to help solve puzzles or questions. The concept (purpose) is so much bigger and more important than the procedure (coding).

Struggle for Smarts? How Eastern and Western Cultures Tackle Learning
While studying teaching methods in Japan as a graduate student, Jim Stigler found himself in a math classroom experiencing a situation that he would have not witnessed in western culture, thus getting him thinking about the comparison between the two.

Why Do Americans Stink at Math?
NY Times articles explains that why the way we teach math produces two problems: students who don't learn math and teachers who don't know how to teach math.

9. Keith Devlin in The Way You Learned Math is So Old School, describes the success rates of people when they are answering math problems on paper and pencil tests and when they are figuring out solutions to similar problems in daily activities of life. What is the difference in success rates solving these problems? What else in the podcast surprised you or caught your interest?

10.In a paragraph or two, explain ideas or concepts you have learned about in our weekly workshops orfromweekly assignments that you think about as you prepare to tutor or that you have used while tutoring.

<

Class 4: Tutoring Readers.....................................................................Class 6: Tutoring Writing>## Key Topics

Math & Gender.....Games & Gaming......Online Tutorials.....Conceptual & Procedural.......## MATH & GENDER

Bessie Coleman with her plane, 1922, the first woman of African American and Native American descent to hold an international pilot's license.

"I refused to take no for an answer."Bessie Coleman, aviator, barnstormer, founder of aviation school for African Americans

"

." Amelia Earhart, pioneer aviator and writerWomen must try to do things as men have tried. When they fail, their failure must be but a challenge to othersResearchers in psychology have been studying STEM fields (science, technology, engineering, and math) and a gender gap phenomenon. A recent study from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign suggests that "children can adopt beliefs from information they hear about their gender," through literature, television and media, toys, and conversations with adults."A girl who hears that “girls are bad at math” can internalize that message, believe she IS bad at math, and do worse at math because of it."Maggie Severns, Future Tense, June 14, 2012

ViewBoys' Toys at AmazonViewGirls' Toys at AmazonViewSTEM Toys and Games at AmazonViewCharlotte writes a customer review to LegoU.S. Girls Less Confident They Can Learn Computer ScienceReadsummary ofOne Teen's Story of Science SexismReadListentoHow One College Is Closing the Tech Gender Gap1.

Apply your knowledge of what produces growth and fixed mindsets to how you feel about learning mathematics. How did you develop the mindset you possess?2.

View the Amazon pages forBoys' Toys and Girls' Toys to evaluate how the toy choices might contribute to the outcomes you read inU.S. Girls Less Confident They Can Learn Computer Science.3.

Describe your response to One Teen's Story of Science Sexism if this event had happened to a female friend of yours.4.

The podcast,How One College Is Changing the Tech Gender Gap,reports 18% of U. S. graduates with computer science degrees are female.Bullet list four changes to teaching and learning that Harvey Mudd College is doing to attract women to the computer science program.5.

If you were on a committee creating a program of study to attract and interest female students in computer science courses, what would you suggest adding to Harvey Mudd'sprogram?## GAMES & GAMING

## Online games offer simulations for learning about real life situations and problem solving.

One paycheck away from the streetReadPlaySpent6.

Understanding the report, bullet list three facts you didn't know before reading,'One Paycheck Away From the Street'?7.

Applying the experience of playingSpent, what choices did you face that are examples of the information in'One Paycheck Away From the Street'.8.

Throughout K-12, in math classes, did you play online games or use a gaming system to help you learn math?Are you playing online games now that contain mathematics? (Angry Birds is all math and physics.)This is

NOT part of the assignment.If you are interested, our TransformingTech wiki has more resources on games and gaming for learning.

## ONLINE TUTORIALS

Khan Academy, is an online tutor for elementary, middle, high school, and college students learning astronomy, biology, calculus, chemistry, geography and more, has the mission "to provide a world-class education" experience free online to everyone.TED talk: Kahn AcademyViewSalman Khan's original intent for creating his tutoring site dramatically changed when users he had not planned for found the videos.9.

How would you summarize Khan's initial intent for his videos and compare that to what Khan Academy is now?Would you conclude that this change resulted because of amistake, having a growth mindset,creating a change of purpose or something else entirely?10.

What is Khan Academy offering schools and students to positively influence teaching and learning? (View 11:00-15:20 for details.)## CONCEPTUAL & PROCEDURAL

## Conceptual learning helps you to think flexibly and use math information in many different ways.

## Procedural learning helps you to learn a formula to solve a problem sometimes without knowing why the formula works.

## We'll explore during class Tuesday differences between these two ways of learning

.## Elementary and Middle School Tutors with Work Study or who want this training---

Registerfor AMERICA READS/COUNTS Overview Training (choose one from the dates available)ALSORegisterfor AMERICA READS/COUNTS Extended TrainingClass 5 OutlineAll Class Opener## Penny Doubled for 30 Days

Penny Doubled VideoSharon Workshop:9 TablesBob Workshop:QwirkleThird Workshop:River RaftKahn AcademyZoombinisPixar in a BoxSite MeetingsBob Lesson Plan: QwirkleOpenerToday we are going to play a game of shapes and colors that promotes mathematical thinking and mathematical learning, both procedurally and conceptually. It is called Qwirkle.

Activities## Qwirkle consists of 108 wooden blocks of six shapes and six colors.

Play Qwirkle Against the Computer with the Qwirkle APP

CloseWhat is the procedural and conceptual learning in the game?

ProceduralLearning the rules of game playConceptualStrategizing and Recognizing AttributesExploring CombinationsKeeping track of pointsComputational Fluency:Means efficient and accurate methods for computing and calculatingAttributes in MathematicsMath Games, both board games and computer games, can be ways to teach students math procedures and concepts.Such games must not over-emphasize fast fact recall at the expense of problem solving and conceptual learningWhy Play Math Games? Kitty Rutherford, Teaching Children Mathematics (April 27, 2015)## Additional Resources

Mathematics in Movies from Harvard UniversityLearning in School and Out: Formal and Informal Experiences with Computer Games in Mathematical ContextsMath & GenderState of Girls and Women in STEM, 2015

Majors by Gender: Is It Bias or the Major that Determines Future Pay?

Fraction of Bachelor's Degrees Earned by Women, by Major. American Physical Society

The Secret History of the Rocket Girls: NASA 1942

Innovation Hub reveals the history of women mathematicians creating their own unit at the Jet Propulsion Lab in California because jet propulsion was considered not a serious science at that time.

Washington Post: How Stereotyped Keep Girls Out of Computer Science

April 26, 2016

"Female Teachers' Math Anxiety Affects Girls' Math Achievement,"

Math Anxiety and Teacher Attitudes: Research by psychologists at the University of Chicago indicates that female teachers' attitudes toward math affect female students' attitudes, particularly young girls.- In a study of first and second grade teachers, nearly all of whom were women,

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, February 2, 2010.it was found that high math anxiety levels among teachers resulted in lower math achievement of girls over the course of the school year. It appears that the girls were learning and confirming the "girls are not good at math stereotype" from their teachers..Boys were relatively unaffected by whether a female math teacher was anxious or not when teaching mathematicsTeachers Give Girls Better Grades on Math Tests When They Don't Know They Are Girls

On the Origins of Gender Human Capital Gaps: Short and Long Term Consequences of Teachers' Stereotypical Biases

Victor Levy & Edith Sand, 2015

Who Studies What? Men, Women and College Majors

NPR, October 28, 2014

Oakland Program Aims to Pique Girls’ Interest in Science, Tech Careers

Techbridge, a program in which girls are allowed to design and build things, such as catapults, in order to inspire them to pursue further knowledge or careers in one of the STEM fields.

Crocheting coral reefs to learn geometry and . .

Institute for Figuring/The Crochet Coral Reef

GoldieBlox Commercial

GoldieBlox, a toy company determined to raise the number of female engineers, uses their innovative toys to draw interest in the STEM subjects in young girls, which is often lost as they get older.

GoldieBlox Toys

A Mighty Girl: Toys, Games, Books, Dress-Up

'Girls' toys? Group of Women Revolutionize the Toy Aisle

In person tutoring: high school students and 1st graders

Pen pal relationships became math tutoring relationships, producing learning and teaching opportunities for both groups.

'Amazing Grace', The Woman Who Revolutionized Computing

Admiral Dr. Grace Murray Hopper - US Navy

Meet the Woman Who is Hacking Coding

"Women must try to do things as men have tried. When they fail, their failure must be but a challenge to others."

- Amelia Earhart, aviator and writer

Games & GamingLearn Alberta presents Math River Raft

Motion Math: Fractions!

Students can learn fractions, decimals, and percentages in a hands-on tablet environment.

UK to teach coding to all students

British school children will learn to code starting this new school year w/the Code in a Box instructions from Codeacademy in NYC.

Online TutorialsView and doComputer Science Ed Week, Hour of CodeZen and the art of coding

Shawnee, 14-years-old inside the Wyoming Girls' School, a secure juvenile justice facility, describes what learning to Code has given her.

Closing the Digital Divide on the Inside

Marketplace on NPR is looking at what technology offers teens who are in facilities where they should be offered education. In this report, Coding is what caught the interest of teen girls.

Is Coding the New Literacy?

How we think about what we are solving is the most important step in using computers to help solve puzzles or questions. The concept (purpose) is so much bigger and more important than the procedure (coding).

UK to teach coding to all students

British school children will learn to code starting this new school year w/the Code in a Box instructions from Codeacademy in NYC.

3rd grade fraction models

Stoichiometry

A youtube tutorial explaining stoichiometry procedure, not teaching the concept.

Stoichiometry Khan Academy

Khan Academy offers an online tutorial for chemical reactions, or stoichiometry.

Lattice Multiplication Wolfram

Wolfram MathWorld explains the lattice multiplication procedure, not the conceptual idea of what you are doing.

Teaching About Factoring A Polynomial

Teaching the FOIL method is procedural; drawing models is conceptual.

Conceptual and ProceduralFraction Phobia: The Root of Math Anxiety?

Struggle for Smarts? How Eastern and Western Cultures Tackle Learning

While studying teaching methods in Japan as a graduate student, Jim Stigler found himself in a math classroom experiencing a situation that he would have not witnessed in western culture, thus getting him thinking about the comparison between the two.

Why Do Americans Stink at Math?

NY Times articles explains that why the way we teach math produces two problems: students who don't learn math and teachers who don't know how to teach math.

How one school fashions geometry lessons from recyclables

Conceptual knowledge of geometry explored using art and fashion to teach math: a multiple intelligences teaching strategy.

Graphic designer spins yarn into textured street art

There is no art that is not math, no architecture or design that does involve mathematical problem solving, relationships, and thinking.

A Day Without Math

What might a day without math be like

Your Life On Earth BBC

https://www.khanacademy.org/partner-content/pixar/crowds/crowds-1/p/table-of-combinations

Harvard Settles Food Workers' Strike 10/26/16

See Math Topic Pages on TutoringMath wiki## Combinations and Combinatorics

## In class we will see a new wiki

TutoringMath thatshows students how to solve problems procedurally and conceptually.## Probability

## Multiplication

## Geometry

## Fractions

## Bar and Line Graphs

## Place Value

## Totals

MeasurementPatterns, Relations, AlgebraCombinations and CombinatoricsTally Marks and PictographsDecimalsRounding and EstimationThe Way You Learned Math Is So Old SchoolListento orreadthe transcript oftranscript of the podcast

9.

Keith Devlin inThe Way You Learned Math is So Old School,describes the success rates of people when they are answering math problems on paper and pencil tests and when they are figuring out solutions to similar problems in daily activities of life.What is the difference in success rates solving these problems?What else in the podcast surprised you or caught your interest?10.

In a paragraph or two, explain ideas or concepts you have learned about in our weekly workshops orfromweekly assignments that you think about as you prepare to tutor or that you have used while tutoring.