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Key Topics
Domicile/Legal Address . . . . .
Family Resources. . . . .
School Opportunities and Choices .


As you read these resources, consider why you are in college and what resources make it possible for you to be here for four years.
Income gap, the difference in personal wealth between the wealthiest and poorest Americans, is as high as it has been since the 1929 Great Depression when we had the widest income gap in American history.

Read or hear

1. Bullet list three reasons identified in Why Many Smart, Low-Income Students Don't Apply to Elite Schools that influence why academically gifted students do NOT apply to top rated colleges.
Did any of these reasons influence your decisions about which colleges to apply to? Explain which did and which did not.

2. Where in the U.S. is the highest concentration of low-income students as reported in New Report Shows Majority of U.S. Students Are Low-Income?
Where is the lowest concentration of low-income students?

What in the report about the number of low-income students in the U.S. is information that you did not know?


Read or hear

3. Before reading and hearing What One District's Data Mining Did For Chronic Absenteeism and Want to Make School Better; Get Kids to Show Up WHAT DID YOU THINK were reasons why kids might be chronically absent from school?

Bullet list three causes of CHRONIC absenteeism you learned in these resources that you had not thought of or might not ever think of as causes.


Poverty School.jpg

BEFORE VIEWING, download word doc or draw these two lists.

Income Continuum.PNG
Education Achievement Continuum
no high school graduation
graduate high school
enter 4-year college or university
enter 2-year community college part time
graduate community college
go on to 4-year college or university
graduate 4-year college or university
enter graduate school or certification beyond college
complete Master's degree
complete Doctoral degree
become incarcerated in jail

Age 7 in America

The 48-minute video introduces 17 American children in their homes and their communities.
Each child tells her or his story about aspirations in life, beliefs and daily experiences.

Place 17 children where you think each MAY BE
at age 23 on the Education Achievement Continuum and Future Annual Income Earnings Continuum.

In order of appearance:
Kate, Lucy, Alexis
Leroy, Kennisha
Doug, Vicky, Mike

While viewing and hearing each child, you are considering possible future opportunities for each one. Projections are only ideas. We are not stating outcomes. We are considering how money, privilege and schooling provide different opportunities from low income or poverty.

4. Place all 17 student names on each of the two continuums as you view the 48 minutes of video.
Education Achievement Continuum
Future Annual Income Earnings Continuum

5. Choose one child and explain your reasons for placing him/her on each continuum in terms of Domicile/Legal Address/ Family Resources/ School Opportunities and Choices.

Additional Resources

MassCUE Slides on Makerspaces and 3D Printing

Screen Shot 2017-02-24 at 12.30.24 PM.pngWhole Group Class Makerspace

  • At tables ask students individually to draw a Native American dwelling that they learned about in school and do not share their drawing with other people at their table.
    • Once everyone is finished, then students at each table will share their drawings and total up the different types of structures that were drawn. In Spring 2017, 64% of the students drew teepees even though only nomadic tribes of Plains Indians lived in these structures.

  • Next, ask each table how many students at each table feel they are clearly define the following two terms: Makerspace and 3D Printing.
    • In Spring 2017, only about 5 out of 50 students could define a makerspace or had ever participated in one in school.

  • Tell each table to uncover the name of the Native American dwelling assigned to their table and let them create a model structure using hands-on materials. Once the models are built, share them in the front of the room

  • Connect the idea of a makerspace with its design-based thinking and hands-on learning to situations facing students from low-income backgrounds. Those students are less likely to graduate from high school than their more affluent peers.
    • Low-Income students face a learning experiences gap compared to more affluent peers. Schools need to provide more experiences where they can create and express their ideas using new technologies as a way to enlarge their thinking and help them overcome the barriers of poverty.

Link to historical background on Native American Dwellings

Screen Shot 2017-02-24 at 12.30.24 PM.pngBob's Workshop on Wealth, Poverty and Educational Outcomes

What are the educational experiences that affluent kids have that poor kids do not have?
  • Learning Experiences Gap

What is Your Dream Job? (no constraints; you could do anything you want for a living)

Job Growth and Education Requirements Through 2020

  1. By 2020, 65 percent of all jobs in the economy will require postsecondary education and training beyond high school.
  2. Judgment/decision-making, communications, analysis, and administration will be the four most in-demand competencies in the labor market
  3. The United States will fall short by 5 million workers with postsecondary education—at the current production rate—by 2020

Education and Lifetime Earnings, Social Security Administration
Screen Shot 2017-11-28 at 10.43.01 AM.png
Tamborini, C. R., et.al., 2015. “Education and Lifetime Earnings in the United States.” Demography 52: 1383–140

Rank the following jobs from lowest to highest
  • Chief Executive Officer $166,548
  • UMass Male Full Professor. $153,638
  • Major League Baseball Umpire. $120,000
  • Lawyer. $85,347
  • Registered Nurse. $67,490
  • High School Teacher: $57,200 with a range from $91,190 to $37,800
  • Executive Chef. $56,747
  • Writer. $48,297
  • Truck Driver. $40,260
  • Worker at Taco Bell. $20,971
  • Cashier at Dick's Sporting Goods. $18,928

Highest Paid Actor (man and woman). 2017 Mark Wahlberg (68 million) and Emma Stone (26 million)
Highest Paid Athlete (man and woman): LeBron James (86.2 million and Serena Williams (27 million)

25 Highest-Paying Jobs in America from Business Insider (2017)

Women's Share of Male-Dominated U.S. Industries
  • Includes five most male-dominated and 5 most female dominated occupations

High School Graduation Rates

US Graduation Rates by State and Student Demographics (2017)

Nationally: 84%
African American Students: 76%
Hispanic Students: 79%
Native American Students: 72%
Students with Disabilities: 66%
ELL Learners: 67%
Low-Income Students: 78%

State with Highest Graduation Rate: Iowa (91.3%)
State with Lowest Graduation Rate: New Mexico (71%)

High School Graduates Going to College

69.7 Percent of 2016 High School Graduates Enroll in College in October 2016

College Graduation Rates

Six-Year College Completion Rates by Institution Type (2017)

Screen Shot 2018-02-22 at 3.39.33 PM.pngA Town by Town Look at Income in Massachusetts

How Both Middle-Class and Wealthy American Families are Sliding inexorably into the Red, MarketWatch (July 10, 2017)

Wealth and Income

The Roots of the Widening Wealth Gap

To see the how much money people earn in different jobs and occupations, go to the Bureau of Labor Statistics

SAT Scores and Income Inequality from Wall Street Journal

Living Wage Calculator
Created and published by MIT

The Richest People in America 2014 from Forbes

Earnings and Unemployment Rates by Educational Attainment, 2015

See Economics 3.9 for information on wages and income

The Digital Divide and Economic Benefits of Broadband Access (March 2016)

MAP: How Per-Pupil Spending Compares Across U.S. School Districts (Fiscal Year 2013)

Mapping the Digital Divide, Council of Economic Advisers Issue Brief, July 2015

Teachers See Digital Divide Among Students, Pew Research Center, March 18, 2013

Bridging the Digital Divide for Low-Income Students, Digital Promise

Chance the Rapper, Ludacris Give Students Laptops to Close the Digital Divide in Chicago

Chance the Rapper Believes in the Internet, So He's Challenging Students

2015 Kids Count Data Book: State Trends in Child Well-Being
  • National Trends in 16 Key Indicators of Child Well-Being (p. 13)
  • Key Indicators by Race and Hispanic Origin (p.15)
School Opportunities and Choices

external image My_Heroes_-_Maya_Angelou_connected_with_countless_people_through_her_powerful_poetry.jpg

Roses Grow in Concrete

TEDx Talk - East Oakland

Washington Nationals Youth Baseball Academy, The NYTimes

Massachusetts Per Pupil Expenditure

60 Minutes, December 2009 Geoffrey Canada is interviewed a second time

READ Highly Talented Low Income Students Never Apply to Top Colleges

Longer School Days and Years are Catching On in Public K-12

Will Smith-Mindset Wisdom

Will Smith, hard work beats talent

Dr. Seuss, "You have brains in your head..."

Stand By Me, Ben E. King

Apollo Theater

Domicile/Legal Address

In Tuesday's class we will be watching clips from 'Age 21 in America'. To view the full film, use the links below.
Age 21 - Part 1
Age 21 - Part 2

PBS Frontline: Middle School Moment

Homeless in LA: School district supports homeless high school students

How School Funding Works in Massachusetts

Family Resources

View Joshua Johnson's story on his struggle to pay for school and how he overcomes it.
Joshua Johnson - Dancing with the Stars

Without Support, Minnesota Students Left Behind at Graduation

Inner City Teens Struggle to Find Jobs

Bottom Line Nonprofit Helps Students Get Diverse Degrees, Jobs
from the Boston Globe, April 2015

What is it like to be poor at an Ivy League School?
from the Boston Globe, April 2015

Cafeteria server dismissed for giving a free lunch

Marketplace Money Desk Report

How Should Borrowers Be Careful When Taking Out Car Title Loans?

Couponing to Donate

Brandeis University's Institute on Assets and Social Policy report, May 2010 finds: Racial Wealth Gap Increases Fourfold

Wealth for American Whites and American Blacks: Radically different conditions from 1984-2000

America's Children at a Glanceprovides a statistical overview of children in the United States, including information about education and health.

Child Poverty Facts from National Center for Children in Poverty

Poverty's Impacts on Student Learning for 4th and 5th Graders

Grades 4 and 5 are a crucial boundary for academic and school success for children born into poverty, contends Stanley Pogrow, a professor at San Francisco State University and author of the 2008 book, Teaching Content Outrageously. He summarized his ideas in February 2009 article in Phi Delta Kappan magazine.
  • Looking at education in America, Pogrow notes that it is fourth grade where children from poverty backgrounds begin to fall dramatically behind their more affluent peers.
    • The curriculum begins to change, becoming more complex, integrated and content-focused. Students are “asked to create ideas, synthesize, and generalize information.
      • There are more cognitively demanding tasks” (Kappan, 2009, p. 409). Many children from less affluent backgrounds are not ready to work with ideas and information in these new, more intellectually demanding ways.

  • Reteaching basic skills and providing test preparation classes is not the way to improve the academic performance of low-income students.
    • These students opportunities to “develop a sense of understanding through intensive, small-group, Socratic conversation.
      • In other words, the development of key thinking skills is an acculturation process that comes through intensive, interactive verbalization about ideas between the young and an adult who constantly questions their ideas and requests alternative and more sophisticated verbalization of their thoughts, ideas and plans” (Kappan, 2009, p. 410).

What happens when schools eliminate remediation and test prep and redirect time and money to develop children’s sense of understanding? Citing research from HOTS (Higher Order Thinking Skills) Project that he directs, Pogrow concludes that reading comprehension scores increase three times as much, and math scores increase even more. For poor children, “less direct instruction time is better” (Kappan, 2009, p. 411)

Defining Economic Security Beyond 'Surviving'
". . . Shawn McMahon has been calculating individual and family budgets. He's the research director for Wider Opportunities for Women, a group that works with low-income women and families. The nonprofit group just released its Basic Economic Security Tables index, which measures the minimum income workers need to achieve basic economic security."

What is the figure that is the bare bones balance for calculating being financially secure with no money for frills? What would you estimate? Lower than $50K? More than $50K? Listen to the report or read the transcript. You may be surprised.

'Going Big' A Tale of Radical Change- The Harlem Children's Zone
What might happen when conventional wisdom about change is turned on its head and the OPPOSITE of what we think we need to do is tried?
When conventional efforts have failed to make change, what do change agents do next?
Geoffrey Canada, whose life experiences produced changes in his thinking and beliefs, envisions a change for poor kids in Harlem, and their families, that is so far out of the norm, so astonishing in its scope, so totally opposite of the present status quo efforts to make educational success for children living in poverty in the inner-city, that it is one of today’s radical education models.
From research observing affluent and impoverished families in their daily routines and life, an astonishing contrast of parenting styles and communication patterns is revealed linked to income status.

For Sharon's workshop:



poverty rate.png


In Seattle: