<Class 1: Tutoring in TEAMS..................................................................Class 3: Digital Connections for Learning

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Topics this week

Multiple Intelligences.....................Student .........................................Mindsets

Don't Prevent Student Mistakes: Prepare for Them



"Multiple intelligences theory asserts that, barring cases of severe brain damage, everyone possesses all eight of the intelligences with varying levels of aptitude, giving each person a unique profile.
- Scott Seider, An Educator's Journey Toward Multiple Intelligence


connects different ideas to each other
solves puzzles and seeks answers
experiments, revises, tries again
asks questions to understand more

self-directs one's own learning
sets personal goals and tries to achieve them
thinks intuitively
reflects introspectively to make change in oneself

learns, plays, enjoys outdoors
interested in plants, animals, science, weather, cycles in nature
is consciously aware of how natural patterns change

is aware of the power of words,
seeks to enlarge vocabulary
reads, writes, debates, argues, revises and critiques

learns from pictures, photos, maps, drawings, architectural plans
recognizes natural and architectural shapes and patterns
designs, draws, paints, perceives through artistic and aesthetic qualities

moves, dances, plays sports, acts, builds, constructs
engages in role plays, simulations, practices
movement and coordination influence learning

actively listens to different tones, rhythms and voices
thinks in sounds, composes
sings, orates, acts and creates music

perceives and responds empathetically and sympathetically to others
is socially aware, utilizes leadership behaviors, is inclusive of others
participates in groups and facilitates communication

Multiple Intelligences: What Does the Research Say

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Many middle and high school students say they do not like learning history; the focus is memorizing names, dates, and places.
Mr. Yarborough's high school history students research year long projects using all 8 of their multiple intelligences.

1.List the 8 multiple intelligences in order from what you think are your most used to least used for your own learning.

2. Imagine yourself as a student in the Mississippi High School of Math and Science history class and you are becoming a character. Some of your least used multiple intelligences will be necessary as you
  • research the person's life
  • compose your script to act
  • rehearse with classmates and coach each other about how to act and speak
  • perform for a large audience viewing, "Tales of the Crypt," in the graveyard.
Select four of your least used multiple intelligences. Analyze and describe how each will help you accomplish this project.

3. Have you experienced using ALL or MOST of your multiple intelligences to learn something? (This could be in school, at camp, while traveling or in another setting.)
Explain the circumstances and what you discovered about how you learn through multiple intelligences.

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In Fresno, California, Edison High School teachers changed instructional methods to interest students in engineering, math and science and health careers in high schools so they could graduate to pursue college degree programs they otherwise would not think they could do.

4. Edison High School students in the Math, Science and Engineering program access multiple intelligences as they
  • design and build models
  • plan and work in groups
  • revise, problem solve, run trials
  • speak to audiences and write reports.
What factors surprised you as you viewed the students explaining their work?
What would have inspired you to participate in this kind of program as a high school student?


Image on Wikimedia Commons by Jd5466
Image on Wikimedia Commons by Jd5466

Many elementary, middle, and high school teachers assume intelligence is fixed and no amount of tutoring or schooling changes it.
A fixed mindset sees talents, abilities and intelligence as determined at birth by genetics, and not able to change; this influences a person to avoid challenges that might lead to failure or make them look not smart.

Encountering a difficult math problem, a fixed mindset person thinks they cannot learn how to understand it,
I have never been good at math,” or “Math is not my thing.

This belief is that no matter how much effort a person makes to learn, he/she lacks what is needed to understand the concepts. This is untrue.

Image by Katie Wright, University of San Diego
Image by Katie Wright, University of San Diego

Teachers and tutors can build growth mindsets by what they say; the words convey confidence in students' abilities to learn and encourage students' efforts in and out of class.

A growth mindset sees talents, abilities, and intelligence as always changing through experience and practice; skills and knowledge are achieved through making mistakes and refining responses because intelligence is changeable.

Encountering a difficult math problem, a growth mindset person thinks,
"I will gain knowledge and skills through effort and time spent working with others who help me understand how to learn in different ways."

This belief exhibits confidence in the person's intellectual abilities and willingness to practice, take lessons, seek tutoring to attain knowledge, understand concepts or do a physical skill.
This is true.

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5. John Legend explains his fame as being the result of a growth mindset.
Summarizing what he says, bullet list 3-4 actions that he took to accomplish his goal.

6. Identify a class or year you remember in your K-12 grades where a teacher encouraged a growth mindset for ALL the students.
Explain how he/she taught students and demonstrated a growth mindset for learning.

Identify a class or year you remember in your K-12 grades where a teacher created a fixed mindset for SOME students.
Explain how he/she taught students and demonstrated a fixed mindset about students and learning.

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HEAR audio AND READ text.

7. Mr. Whaley heightens 2nd graders' self confidence as highly capable achievers for both ESL students and native English speakers. He encourages making mistakes and using mistakes as ways to learn. Identify two other strategies you recognized as ways that he focuses on growth mindsets so students evaluate themselves as successful learners.

Don't Prevent Student Mistakes: Prepare for Them

Mistakes created fireworks.

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9. Contrast U.S. first graders' responses with Japanese first graders' responses when attempting to solve math problems. What did each group do when given impossible to solve problems?

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  • Open ONE link to learn if mistakes, growth mindsets, or creative change of purpose developed the product.

  1. Party in a can: the story of Silly String
  2. Post-It notes
  3. Play-Doh
  4. Electronic Ink/the Kindle
  5. Super Soaker

10. Before learning the product's origin, what did you think was the process that created it?
Now that you know, do you conclude this product occurred by mistake, a growth mindsets, or creative change of purpose?

For more information and resources about any of this week's key topics, please see, Mindset Resources page

Believe Some Learning Myths?

You Can Learn Anything

Class 2 Outline

All Class Opener

Bat and Ball Problem

F.A.T. CITY Visual Perception from SchoolTube

A bat and ball cost $1.10.

The bat costs one dollar more than the ball.

How much does the ball cost?

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Multiple Intelligiences

Sharon Workshop: A Walk Back in Time

Bob Workshop: Solving Puzzles and Learning from Mistakes

Third Workshop: Developing Growth Mindsets and Purposeful Conversation

Site Meetings

Rita Pierson Video, Every Child Needs A Champion

America Reads/America Counts

Fourth Credit Option Sign-ups
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Rita Pierson: Every Kid Needs A Champion

Bob Workshop: Solving Puzzles and Learning from Mistakes


Puzzles Are Fun, Except When They Are Not
  • What is put on a table and cut, but never eaten. (Deck of Playing Cards)
  • Mary's father has 4 children. Three are named Nana, Nene and Nini. What is the fourth child's name?
  • What is the tallest building in a town (The Library Because It Has So Many Stories)
  • You’re running a race and pass the person in 2nd place. What place are you in now?
    • You are now in Second Place; you never passed the person in first

  • Give everyone a Puzzle Sheet and ask them to tell us what is the middle image?
    • 1/3 of the group solve the puzzle by themselves
    • 1/3 of the group solve the puzzle with a partner
    • 1/3 of the group solve the puzzle with a tutor (site coordinator
      • Come tell us when they have an answer

Note: Students can also solve the puzzles in pairs and trios if there are no tables to work at.

  • Ask for reactions to puzzle solving by oneself, with a partner or with a tutor
    • Students in school are often asked to solve puzzles, answer questions, figure out connections by themselves

  • Have everyone solve some of the rest of the puzzles on the page with a partner

  • In the FAT City video, FAT stands for Fear, Anxiety, Tension
    • This is what many students feel everyday in school when, working alone, they do not immediately see the answers to problems or the connections between academic materials.
    • They begin to think of themselves as being not good at different subjects/as a failure at learning the topic
      • They adopt fixed mindsets "I can't do this . . . ."
        • They become disengaged, discouraged, defeated and ashamed.

Supportive Coaches Use Mistakes as a Teaching Tool

  • Puzzle Sheets in class are low-stakes events; puzzles like Miguel's Potato Chips are higher-stakes events for many students
    • Tutors have an essential role in helping students to solve the puzzles they encounter in all academic subjects to make growth mindsets.
      • By solving puzzles students see themselves achieving; achieveing strengthen their beliefs that they can and increases their motivation.
        • Tutors must use multiple strategies to help students/no one strategy fits every learnCoaching is necessary to inspire and empower learners.. Tutors must adopt multiple personalities (Explainers, Procedure Followers, Strategists, and Visualizers, the four coaches in the 4MALITY tutor

Sharon's Workshop Goes Here

A Walk Back in Time

See pictures for the walk back in time in 1000 Events That Changed the World, from HistoryStack

Third Workshop: Mindsets and Purposeful Praise Goes Here

Tutoring America Reads/Counts --- Work Study option. Contact UMass Financial Aid Office for information.

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If schools change HOW they teach and begin by making learning interesting, giving students choices of topics and projects, using mistakes as expected ways of learning , what might happen to students' desire to learn things they think are difficult?

Read Big Thinkers: Ideas for Changing School
Viewing and hearing students talk about the Engineering Program reveals changes that the school has adopted from Gardner's list, 'Big Thinkers: Ideas for Changing Schools'. Are all of the changes evident in Edison High's math, science and engineering program? Cite evidence of each change you saw.

View Growth Mindset vs Fixed Mindset

Derek Coleman, Professional Football Player

Chicago's Cook County Prison Educational Programs

Bodily/Kinesthetic, Interpersonal, Verbal/Linguistic, Logical/Mathematical, Naturalistic, IntrapersonalVisual/Spatial, Musical/Rhythm