<Class 11: Impacts of Poverty on Learning........................Class 13: Envisioning Multicultural Schools>

Key Topics

Schools Segregated Today....................
Wealth Gap...................
Young Black Males


Marching Toward Justice highlights the role of Thurgood Marshall and other African-American lawyers in the Supreme Court decision, Brown v. the Board of Education, which celebrated its 50th anniversary in 2004. Pictured, Judge Robert A. Katzmann (2nd Cir.), Judge Damon J. Keith (6th Cir.), and Judge Sonia Sotomayor (2nd Cir.), at the Marching Toward Justice display at the Second Circuit.
Marching Toward Justice highlights the role of Thurgood Marshall and other African-American lawyers in the Supreme Court decision, Brown v. the Board of Education, which celebrated its 50th anniversary in 2004. Pictured, Judge Robert A. Katzmann (2nd Cir.), Judge Damon J. Keith (6th Cir.), and Judge Sonia Sotomayor (2nd Cir.), at the Marching Toward Justice display at the Second Circuit.

We assume schools desegregated by Civil Rights legislation from 1960s and early 1970s are integrated today more than they have ever been. Is this a fact or an erroneous assumption?
  • Read Northeastern University's report to view a chart of most and least segregated US city schools today.
Northeastern University study finds widespread school segregation currently in the U.S.

1. Before reading Northeastern University's report about segregation in schools today, what were your beliefs about America's school segregation?

2. Before reading this report, if you were asked where the highest segregation in New England might be, what would you have replied?
According to the report, where in New England are the cities with the highest segregation of school populations?
What are the three procedures the report recommends to desegregate schools?

  • Analyze the U.S. census data where colored dots show housing segregation in American cities.
Mapping Segregation: New York Times

3. On the interactive map of housing segregation, choose three American cities to view that interest you.
Name each city and report what you learn about where different groups of people live.


4. While viewing the video of these two high school students whose schools are in towns right next to each other, analyze and BULLET LIST half a dozen differences in the academic experiences of David and Owen at their high schools.

5. Why are there differences in the funding abilities of each community?

10:02-11:46 shows the announcement of lowered funding at David’s school and occasions strong student responses.
Think of yourself as one of these students. What would be your response hearing this news of decreased budget for the school?


White Americans pass wealth down to the next generation.

Black Americans pass wealth up to the previous generations.

Map of poverty rate in the United States in 2014.  Dark colors indicate higher rates.
Map of poverty rate in the United States in 2014. Dark colors indicate higher rates.

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6. Reading the news report about the differences in wealth of Americans, what did you learn about the disparity of accumulated wealth in America between White, Hispanic and Black families?


Chicago's Urban Prep Academy has a goal of graduating 100% of its male high school students every year.
Learn what school staff and students are doing to achieve this goal while attempting to address the list of issues reported most often about African American boys in schools:
  • low graduation rates;
  • high rates of placement in special education;
  • the disproportionate use of suspensions and expulsions


7. Analyze strategies/programs/ways Urban Prep staff and administrators deliberately create high expectations and high support for students' participation in building their success as learners in regards to
  • making interesting learning;
  • building growth mindsets in each learner;
  • creating a community of achievers who support and help each other.



8. Describe assets--people, ideas, and procedures--deliberately incorporated into the afterschool Operation Shoestring that create successful learning for students in a state where school funding is very low.
How do these assets compare to what you would seek to have in an afterschool program for your younger siblings or family members?

Additional Resources

Percentage of Students Enrolled in Schools, Fall 2002, Fall 2012, Fall 2024

National Graduation Rates by Race, Ethnicity and Disability

National Participation Rates, Math AP Programs

National Participation Rates, Science AP Programs

Diversity Gaps in Computer Science: Exploring the Underrepresentation of Girls, Blacks and Hispanics (2016)
  • Black students are less likely than white students to have computer science classes available at school (47 percent versus 58 percent, respectively).
  • Black students (58 percent) and Hispanic students (50 percent) are less likely than white students (68 percent) to use a computer at home.
  • Girls are less likely than boys to be aware of computer science learning opportunities online and in their community. They are also less confident that they could learn computer science (48 percent versus 65 percent).
  • Boys are more likely to be told by a parent or a teacher that they would be good at computer science. (Specifically, 46 percent of boys versus 27 percent of girls were told by a parent that they would be good at computer science; 39 percent of boys versus 26 percent of girls got that message from a teacher.)

State High School Graduation Rates by Race, Ethnicity (2011-2012)

Achievement Gap Narrows as High School Graduation Rate for Minority Students Improve Faster Than Rest of the Nation

Middle School Moment video from PBS Frontline

Dropout Crisis Facts

Adjusted Cohort Graduation Rates

The Most and Least Diverse Public High Schools in Massachusetts

Where Are The First Graduates of Urban Prep?

Explore Connecticut's School Districts' Achievement Gap by Race and Ethnicity (January 2016)

Schools Segregated Today
Part 2 The Tale of Two Schools
Continuing the process of graduating high school and enrolling in college.

Washington Nationals Youth Baseball Academy, The NYTimes

Moving Urban Schools Forward
Massive underfunding of inner city schools has not occurred because there are no funds to spend, but how those funds are spent.

Dr.Pedro Noguera, professor at UCLA and the Director of the Center for the Study of School Transformation describes how Brockton, MA succeeds w/a population of poor kids.

For Public Schools, Segregation Then, Segregation Now: Education and the Unfinished March
Richard Rothstein. Economic Policy Institute, August 27, 2013. This report states that public schools are more segregated now than 40 years ago.

Dan Rather Examines Schools in Detroit

Black/White Wealth

Who Gets to Graduate? N.Y.Times

Diversifying the Tech Sector Jobs of Silicon Valley NPR

Portraits of an Urban School

Algebra Project/The Gateway

NOW with Bill Moyers interviews Dr. Robert Moses

Young Black Males

Building Communities Through Rituals: Chicago's Urban Prep

Schott report, 2012, The Urgency of Now

The Urgency of Now, the 2012 Schott Educational Foundation's report.

National Summary of The Urgency of Now

For over five years, The Schott Foundation for Public Education has tracked the performance of Black males in public education systems across the nation.* Past efforts by Schott were designed to raise the nation’s consciousness about the critical education issues affecting Black males; low graduation rates, high rates of placement in special education, and the disproportionate use of suspensions and expulsions, to name a few.

The 2008 Schott report documents that states and most districts with large Black enrollments educate their White, non-Hispanic children, but do not similarly educate the majority of their Black male students.

  • More than half of Black males did not receive diplomas with their cohort in 2005/2006.

  • The state of New York has 3 of the 10 districts with the lowest graduation rates for Black males.

  • The one million Black male students enrolled in the New York, Florida, and Georgia public schools are twice as likely not to graduate with their class as to do so.
  • Delaware, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, South Carolina, and Wisconsin graduated fewer Black males with their peer group than the national average.

  • Illinois and Wisconsin have nearly 40-point gaps between how effectively they educate their Black and White non-Hispanic male students.

These trends, and others cited in Given Half a Chance, are evidence of a school-age population that is substantively denied an opportunity to learn, and of a nation at risk.

Taken directly from the Schott Foundation for Public Education (2008), information from the executive summary of their 2008 edition,Given Half a Chance: The Schott 50 State Report on Public Education and Black Males.

* Black students are defined by the U.S. Department of Education as “students having origins in any of the Black racial groups of Africa as reported by their school.” Data in the Report are based on information from the U. S. Department of Education’s National Center for Education Statistics and Office for Civil Rights, state departments of education and local school district.

For historical information on African American history and the Civil Rights Movement, see Massachusetts United States History II.25 and II.26

Southern League: Birmingham Barons Break Racial Divide

The Urgency of Now: The Schott 50 State Report on Public Education and Black Males--summary.

Young Black Males Excel in Maine

Ronald McNair, Astronaut, Student Extraordinaire

Ronald Ferguson Works to Close the Achievement Gap Without Widening a Racial One

Five Things High School Students Should Know about Race, Harvard Education Letter (November/December 2012).

Mean Girls

Success Factors: Rich, Poor And Everybody Else: NPR

Report: Widespread Racial Disparities In Public School Punishments: NPR

How Unintentional But Insidious Bias Can Be the Most Harmful: PBS Newshour

Jackie Robinson and the kids in the candy store

African American Scientists & Inventors

Morgan Freeman explains to 60 Minutes, in 60 seconds, why he believes there should not be a Black History Month.


Shirley Chisholm

Shirley Chisholm 20 sec
Shirley Chisholm 1:30

Emily Cutting


Alicia Keys/wikipedia

Alicia Keys

Define power and illusion
We have seen the illusion created by defining races; let's investigate what power that illusion exerts politically, socially, monetarily.
Race the Power of an Illusion PBS


Dr. Bob Moses, founder of the Algebra Project, past recipient of a MacArthur Genius Grant, young leader in the student activist group, SNCC (Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee), formed in April, 1960, speaks about the importance of learning algebra for all high school students and why, today, math and algebra are the new civil rights for American students.

algebra symbols.gif

Camera-video.pngAdvance video player to 12:30 in the timeline.

View 13 minute video about Dr. Robert Moses and the Algebra Project.

While watching the video, list 6 features of the mission and methods of The Algebra Project that positively impact student learning and graduation rates.


Algebra Project/The Gateway

5. List six features of the The Algebra Project that positively impact student learning and graduation rates.

6. If high schools in inner cities or in poor communities were to adopt this way of teaching and learning algebra, what do you think some of the results might be on graduation rates and choices of careers by the students?

Reading.pngRead synopsis:
Black Lives Matter: The Schott 50 State Report on Public Education and Black Males, 2015

Black History, Lost, Stolen, or Strayed

Andy Rooney

The Cosby Show

Screen Shot 2017-02-24 at 12.30.24 PM.pngBob's Lesson Plan with Projections about Schools, Students and Teachers

What schools did you attend as a K-12 student?
  • How diverse were they?
    • How many students graduated?

Types of Schools
  • Public
  • Private
    • Independent
    • Religious
  • Homeschool
  • Charter
  • Single Gender
  • Vocational
  • Virtual/Online
  • Magnet
  • Language Immersion
  • Extended Day
  • Year-Round
  • GED
  • School to College
  • Montessori
  • Reggio Emilia

The Ultimate Guide to 13 Different Types of Schools Across America, from Rasmussen College

Back to School Statistics 2017, National Center for Education Statistics
  • 50.7 million public school students entering prekindergarten through grade 12 in fall 2017
    • White students will account for some 24.4 million.
    • The remaining 26.3 million
      • 8.0 million Black students, 1
      • 3.6 million Hispanic students,
      • 2.8 million Asian/Pacific Islander students,
      • 0.5 million American Indian/Alaska Native students
      • 1.5 million students of Two or more races (source).

  • White student enrollment will continue to decline through 2026
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What are The 10 States that are Diversifying the Fastest?

Diversity Explosion Interactive Map

This interactive map is based on the book Diversity Explosion: How New Racial Demographics are Remaking America. William Frey, 2015.

Dropouts and Graduation Rates

2016 Map: Graduation Rates by State, Student Group

Teacher Shortages

Teacher Shortages: What We Know, Education Commission of the States (May 2016)
  • Estimated 60,000 teachers short in 2015; 100,000 teachers short in 2018 and the years beyond

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Undergraduate PostSecondary Enrollment to Fall 2024
  • Declining Numbers of Undergraduates Going into Education
    • 691,000 in 2009
    • 451,000 in 2014
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Understanding Teacher Shortages, Interactive Maps from Learning Policy Institute (September 2016)

Top States on Teacher Attractiveness Rating
  • Oregon
  • Wyoming
  • Pennsylvania

Top States on Teacher Equity Rating
  • Vermont
  • Kentucky
  • Iowa

School Enrollments

Public Schools: 98,454
Private Schools: 30,861
2 Yr Colleges: 1700
4 Yr Colleges: 3,026

Public School Enrollment Projections to 2024-25

Racial/Ethnic School Enrollment to Fall 2024

Charter School Enrollment (updated April 2015. See also All About Charter Schools: Quick Facts

Virtual and Blended Schools


Salary and Hiring of Teachers, Bureau of Labor Statistics

Final Class School Design Activity

Redlining, Still a Thing, 2015

Red Lining Syracuse, NY, 1930s

Home Owners' Loan Corporation

Chicago's Racial Restrictive Covenants

In TEAMS, we have viewed many different schools that emphasize finding ways for all students to achieve more success, the mission of our course as well.

Students this semester have tutored at all grade levels from Adult GED programs to high schools, middle schools (public and independent), elementary schools, after-school programs and preschools

This week, in sites, re-design the school where you are tutoring to make that organization achieve more success for more students

  • Technology Plan for the school
  • 2 Questions you want to ask prospective teachers that you plan to hire
  • What resources will you have that will promote success for students
  • Name of the School
  • Mission Statement/School Slogan

Teacher Racial Bias Matters More for Students of Color

Sharon PowerPoint