<Class 7: English Language Learners...................................................................................Class 9: Whose History/Whose Science>

Universal Design for Learning...............
Differentiated Instruction ...............
......Learning Disabilities
Partial or Full Inclusion Models..

Universal Design for Learning

Poster by the United States Department of Labor celebrating the 20th anniversary of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 featuring Helen Keller and Justin Dart, Jr., 2010
Poster by the United States Department of Labor celebrating the 20th anniversary of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 featuring Helen Keller and Justin Dart, Jr., 2010

Americans with Disabilities Act : Universal Designs

Helen Keller and Justin Dart, Jr. lived political lives to affect societal change in our society today. Politically fighting racial discrimination, seeking equal rights for all citizens and defending those in need were the life work of both these people.

Reading.pngRead Political activities on Helen Keller's wikipedia page to learn about her political activism.
Helen Keller, Social Activist, Defender of the Needy

1. List four causes for social justice Helen Keller supported during her lifetime that you were not aware of till researching for this assignment. Were you taught about Keller's life-long political activism in K-12 classes? If so, what did you learn?

Not for the assignment, but if you are interested in learning more information, check Helen Keller Biography page

Reading.pngRead Background, Activism, Road to Freedom parts 1+2 on Justin Dart, Jr.'s wikipedia page to learn about his political activism.
Justin Dart, Jr., Social Activitist, Force for the Disabled

2. Justin Dart, Jr. became an advocate for the disadvantaged after he contracted polio. Beginning in 1952 at the segregated University of Houston, and throughout his life, he fought for causes that changed society. What did you discover he accomplished in his life? In classes, did you learn about Dart and his work on behalf of people?


Differentiated Instruction acknowledges and appreciates differences in learning that include students':
  • varying academic abilities
  • personalities
  • interests
  • background knowledge and experiences
  • levels of motivation for learning.

The chart below from Adapting Curriculum and Instruction in Inclusive Classrooms: A Teacher’s Desk Reference, by Deschenes, C., Ebeling, D., and Sprague, J., 1994, displays nine types of adaptations that teachers can perform to differentiate instruction. (Document source found here.)

Nine Types of Adaptations
Level of Support
Adapt the number of items that the learner is expected to learn or complete.

For example:
Reduce the number of social studies terms a learner must learn at any one times.
Adapt the time allotted and allowed for learning, task completion, or testing.

For example:
Individualize a timeline for completing a task; pace learning differently (increase or decrease) for some learners.
Increase the amount of personal assistance with a specific learner.

For example:
Assign peer buddies, teaching assistants, peer tutors, or cross-age tutors.
Adapt the way instruction is delivered to the learner.

For example:
Use different visual aids, plan more concrete examples, provide hands-on activities, place students in cooperative groups.
Adapt the skill level, problem type, or the rules on how the learner may approach the work.

For example:
Allow the use of a calculator to figure math problem; simplify task directions; change rules to accommodate learner needs.
Adapt how the student can respond to instruction.
For example:

Instead of answering questions in writing, allow a verbal response, use a communication book for some students, allow students to show knowledge with hands-on materials
Substitute Curriculum
Adapt the extent to which a learner is actively involved in the task.

For example:In geography, have a student hold the globe, while others point out locations.
Adapt the goals or outcome expectations while using the same materials.

For example:
In social studies, expect a student to be able to locate just the states while others learn to locate capitals as well.
Provide different instruction and materials to meet a student’s individual goals.

For example:
During a language test, one student is learning computer skills in the computer lab.

Teaching with Technology


Technology enables the weekly TEAMS wiki assignments to offer multimodal resources for viewing, listening, reading, playing games, creating as ways to address learning differences.

Technology assists differentiation of learning by enabling:

  • reading aloud text

  • highlighting text

  • including a dictionary while students read

  • adding sticky notes to text wherever students put them

Camera-video.pngView Differentiated instruction with technology

3. Where you are tutoring, are any of these nine adaptations being used to facilitate learning?

4. The video, Differentiated Instruction with Technology, shows the capabilities of iPad technology use to differentiate learning, changing the model of ‘one size fits all’ teaching methods to enhance students’ learning experiences.
Describe three ways that you observed teachers differentiating learning. Identify the multiple intelligences that students use in these differentiations.

5. The multi-modal resources we put on the TEAMS' assignment pages, videos, audio pod casts, text, interactive websites and games offer viewing, reading, hearing and doing opportunities to decrease boredom, surprise you and build interest in the topics.
Are these multimodal resources useful to you as a learner? Please explain your thoughts and reasons.

6. How might multimodal resources facilitate an inclusion model of teaching and learning in K-12 grades of schools?


Big Chess.jpg

Differences in learning are labeled disabilities, but learning differently is truly displaying exceptional abilities.

Camera-video.pngView Temple Grandin A Scientist Understands Animals

Camera-video.pngView A LEGO Shuttle Got To Space Raul Oaida Launches LEGOs from NPR's Science Friday.

Reading.pngRead Student actions against bullying makes acceptance of differences real in school Chy Johnson's Upstanders

7. In Teams classes and workshops we have discussed the power exerted on learning by having a growth mindset and not feeling fear of making mistakes, rather viewing mistakes as necessary to learning.
Growth mindsets, lack of fear of mistakes and a belief in their ability to learn are qualities displayed by each of these individuals. In different paragraphs describe what you found remarkable about the behaviors and achievements of Temple Grandin and Raul Oaida. Then reflect upon the qualities of both that made their achievements occur.

8. Chy Johnson is an example of what might happen if schools become inclusive models for students with exceptional abilities by including them in the mainstream of school life. If you were an administrator at a school, what would you create or do to assist exceptional students to be part of the daily school life?


“[Inclusion is] about embracing the idea that diversity is the reality and, therefore, each child is a unique learner… In order for each child to maximally benefit from education, we need to organize our schools, curriculum, and teaching with this reality in mind.”
-Elizabeth Kozleski, Director of the National Institute for Urban School Improvement
Summarized by Professor Christine Macfarlane, Ph.D. at Pacific University.

Partial Inclusion

Students are placed in the regular classroom, but they might be pulled out throughout the course of the day in order to receive specialized instruction. Partial inclusion also includes instances where students are allowed to socialize with non-disabled peers during lunch times, recess, etc. and are placed in separated learning environments with only special education students.

Full Inclusion

Students receive all of their instruction in the regular classroom setting. Support comes to the student, rather than pulling them out.
Inclusion is not just about including children with disabilities. Inclusive education means that all students in a school are part of the school community and can be educated together regardless of any differences.

Diane Ferguson in Education World, “What Does An ‘Inclusive’ School Look Like?suggests ways educators make classes inclusive:

-LESS whole-class, teacher-directed instruction
-LESS classroom time devoted to fill-in-the-blank worksheets
-LESS effort by teachers to thinly “cover” large amounts of material in every subject area
-LESS tracking or leveling of students into “ability groups”

-MORE active learning in the classroom
-MORE emphasis on higher-order thinking and learning of key concepts and principles
-MORE responsibility transferred to students for their work
-MORE attention to affective needs and the varying cognitive styles of individual students
-MORE delivery of special help to students in general education classrooms

Information previously published in Improving Education: The Promise of Inclusive Schooling, D. Ferguson.

9. In classes where you tutor, do you see partial or full inclusion of students?
As a teacher, which do you think you would prefer to utilize?

10. What resources would you need to assist you to do either full or partial inclusion?

All Class Opener

Fat City "What is fairness?"

Equality vs. Equity Image

Three main UDL principles:
1) Multiple Means of Representation - giving students a variety of different ways to access information;
2) Multiple Means of Action and Expression - allowing students to showcase their knowledge, communicate, and express themselves through diverse modes, and
3) Multiple Means of Engagement - giving students voice and choice in their learning (CAST, Inc., 2017).

Fairness Video from FAT CITY

Assistive Technology: Resource Roundup

Our Solar System
Differentiating the teaching of Astronomy for kids

6 Ways to Make Learning Sticky

Learning Disabilities

LA Unified School District Integrating Special and Regular Ed students

Edutopia's Special Education Resources and Ideas

Five-Minute Film Festival: Reaching Learners of All Abilities/Edutopia

Jerry Pinkney, Book Illustrator & Caldecott Winner is dyslexic

Philip Schultz

Audie Cornish on NPR

Poet Philip Schults Details Lifelong Struggle and Bullying (0:59-1:58)

Misunderstood Minds

Apple: Special Education

Differentiated Instruction with Poetry

Poetry Exposes Truth About Public Housing in the Bay Area
Off/Page Project, Youth Speaks collaborates with The Center for Investigative Reporting
This is Home - Deandre Evans, Will Hartfield, Donte Clark (video)
PBS NEWSHOUR ART BEAT: Poets recite their poem; text of poem on view.

Reverso Poetry
Mirror Mirror Review poem
Meet the Author: Marilyn Singer (video 33:49)
Follow, Follow: A Book of Reverso Poems: Marilyn Singer
In The Hood -Marilyn Singer

Fibonacci Poetry
Fibonacci Sequence

Cento Poetry
Cento an ancient form
Compose a Book Spine Cento
Book Spine Poems

Black-Out Poems:

Haiku and Origami: ways of transforming small moments, one with words, the other folding 2D to 3D as if by magic
Paper Frog

Partial or Full Inclusion Models

Visual Thesaurus: FAIR defined

Olivet Eagles Middle School Football Team

With Technology For Everyone

A next-generation digital book
Mike Matas astonishes us with the power of learning when books appear to be alive: creative
digital books change our ideas of what a book does when the platform is a tablet.

The Myth of Average
L. Todd Rose, high school dropout turned Harvard faculty member, in this TED talk describes how a simple new way of thinking helps nurture individual potential.

Text Summarizers
Text to Speech

With Hands-On Interactive Problem Solving
Hands-on, minds-on interactive learning creates an engaged playful dynamic through movement, conversation, problem solving, drama, cooperation, and emotional involvement.

Learning occurs in engaging ways that builds togetherness and teamwork. This learning activity does not track students or separate them from each other but groups them so they are able to reach solutions through thinking together.

Screen Shot 2016-03-22 at 11.22.50 AM.png

World Peace Game

external image JohnHunter-20877934376149aa4bea08cc39cb1ec2.jpg

John Hunter's game teaches everyone, whether their abilities are those of gifted and talented, regular or special ed, they learn and teach each other through hands-on, minds-on interactive scenarios.

View The World Peace Game
View John Hunter: Teaching with the World Peace Game

Civil Rights

Full inclusion regards all civil rights, skin tone as well as academic and physical differences, as paramount.

View two videos about Bayard Rustin to discover what we do not know about him.
Bayard Rustin
Bayard Rustin
In front of 170 W 130 St., March on Washington, l to r, Bayard Rustin, Deputy Director, and Cleveland Robinson, Chairman of Administrative Committee / World Telegram & Sun photo by O. Fernandez.
In front of 170 W 130 St., March on Washington, l to r, Bayard Rustin, Deputy Director, and Cleveland Robinson, Chairman of Administrative Committee / World Telegram & Sun photo by O. Fernandez.

See Historical Biography page for Bayard Rustin

Brother Outsider: The Life of Bayard Rustin7

Whose History/Whose Science Assignment

Differentiating Learning Using Online Resources and Wikis

The Elements e-book for iPad

In this part of the assignment for Whose History/Whose Science, you will be locating differentiated learning resources for history, science, math, sports and literature lessons using online resources and wikis.

Differentiated learning means students are learning multimodally using multiple intelligences. In differentiated lessons, students not only read print text, but view pictures and images, watch videos, interact with online resources, and express ideas orally and in writing. They use different intelligences to think deeply about topics that they explore interactively.

The goal is for you to locate at least two multimodal resources that focus on an important change maker in history, science, math, sports or literature.
Science & Mathematics
Sports & Athletics
Literature and The Arts
Claudette Colvin

Cesar Chavez

Sylvia Mendez

John Trudell
Benjamin Banneker

George Washington Carver

Mae Jemison

Navajo Code Talkers

Margaret E. Knight
Jim Thorpe

Althea Gibson

Muhammad Ali

Bill Russell

Babe Didrikson Zaharias
Langston Hughes

Marian Anderson

Billie Holiday

Sidney Poitier

Possible online multimodal resources include:
  • Video
  • Audio
  • Podcasts
  • Pictures and Images
  • Interactive Websites
  • Learning Games
  • Text-Based Materials

When you locate a resource, please complete the following sheet and include it as part of your written homework. Answer the following question using the worksheet:
  • What Resources Did You Chose and How Do They Differentiate Student Learning?

Video Resource
Screen Shot 2016-10-28 at 12.35.38 PM.png
Describe the Resource Here and How It Differentiates Learning for Students
Interactive Web Resource

Screen Shot 2016-10-29 at 12.06.19 PM.png
Describe the Resource Here and How It Differentiates Learning for Students
Biography Resource

Screen Shot 2016-10-28 at 12.34.37 PM.png
Describe the Resource Here and How It Differentiates Learning for Students
Lesson Plan Resource

Screen Shot 2016-10-28 at 12.13.15 PM.png
Describe the Resource Here and How It Differentiates Learning for Students
Text-Based Resource
Describe the Resource Here and How it Differentiates Learning for Students

Suggestions for Locating Multimodal Resources

  • Start with NPR, PBS, Sports Illustrated/ESPN (for athletes)

  • Use online sites from universities, historical organizations, museums, government agencies and other academic sources.
    • Avoid dot.com sites as well as Wikipedia whenever possible
  • Go to Wikimedia Commons for freely licensed photographs and other images at https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Main_Page
  • When locating videos, check who posted the video on YouTube
    • Avoid individuals or organizations who have a bias point of view
      • Look for other video sources on TeacherTube or material posted by academic organizations
  • Locate brief biographies of historical figures that can be easily read by elementary, middle and high school students
    • The New York Times has online obituaries that provide overviews of a person's life
  • Look for online book reviews of recent books that have been written by historians or journalists about an historical person
    • Look for picture books or young adult literature about the person you are researching or the events of their lives

Extra Names for the Assignment

Margaret Fuller

Mary Shelley

Ursula K. Le Guin

Chimamanda Adichie

Mary Anning

Rosalind Franklin..........

Beatrix Potter

Caroline Herschel

Shirley Chisholm

Margaret Sanger

Francis Perkins

Elizabeth Cochrane (Nelly Bly)

Ada Lovelace

Emmy Noether

Maria Agnesi

African American Mathematicians..........

Alice Paul..........

Fannie Lou Hamer..........

Dolores Huerta

Noor Inayat Khan

Lilly Ledbetter

Ruth Bader Ginsburg

Marie Curie

Lise Meitner

Cecilia Helena-Gaposchkin

Chien-Shiung Wu

Linda Anne Judson Richards.


Sophie Germain

Mary Fairfax Somerville

Jerrie Cobb and the Mercury 13..........

Kathryn D. Sullivan

Emily Warren Roebling

Frida Kahlo

Anna May Wong

Maya Lin

Alice Guy Blache