<Home...................................... Class 2: Multiple Intelligences & Student Mindsets>

Key Topics

Impacts of Tutoring.............

What is Tutoring...................

Schools and Districts...................

Demographics of US Education

Impacts of Tutoring

Who is a learner?
Who is a leader?
Who is a mentor?
How do these roles affect learning?

Tutored Students Score Better -- True or False?
external image tutoring.jpg

Developing Talent in Young People

Almost every youngster has the potential to learn the academic material taught in schools under favorable conditions.

  • "What any person in the world can learn, almost all persons can learn if provided with appropriate prior and current conditions of learning.”
    • Benjamin Bloom (Developing Talent in Young People, 1985)

After reviewing more than 40 years of research, Benjamin Bloom asserted thatthe middle 95% of school students become very similar in terms of their measured achievement, learning ability, rate of learning, and motivation for further learning when provided with favorable learning conditions.”
  • His conclusion is that great achievements are not the result of native genius but a “long and intensive process of encouragement, nurturance (affectionate care and attention), education, and training.”

Importance of Staying in School

  • $83,417: Average earnings of full-time, year-round workers age 18 and older with a bachelor's degree or higher.
  • $72,896: Workers whose highest degree was a bachelor's had mean earnings of $72,896.
  • $42,094: Mean earnings for full-time, year-round workers with a high school diploma (includes GED certificate).
  • $31,288: Average earning for workers with less than a ninth grade education.

What is Tutoring

external image US_Navy_071022-N-6538W-023_Machinist%27s_Mate_3rd_Class_Joseph_Herrera%2C_tutors_1st_graders_at_West_Hills_Elementary_School.jpg

Who is a teacher?Who is a tutor?Who is learning?Are these roles similar or different?

Tutoring Code of Ethics from Association for the Tutoring Profession

Tutoring is a multi-faceted activity that simultaneously supports students' desires and their learning.

Tutors create favorable learning conditions by providing encouragement, nurturance and strategies for learning.

o not giving answers, but demonstrating multiple strategies that students can use to investigate or solve something.

o not writing a paper, but coaching kids by talking and writing with them throughout all parts of the writing process.

o not reading an assignment to answer questions, but reading together to comprehend and to enjoy the learning.

In Tutoring Matters: Everything You Wanted to Know about How to Tutor by Jerome Rabow, Tiffani Chin, and Nima Fahimian (Temple University Press, 1999), the authors note that most tutors have a series of normal fears and anxieties when entering schools:

o Will the students like me?
o Will I like the students?
o Will I be able to fit in with and understand students who are different?
o Will I be able to teach the students?
o Will I succeed?

In response to these anxieties, Rabow, Chin, and Fahimian propose that tutors adopt a specific set of attitudes and behaviors that build a foundation for successful tutoring: giving up expectations, displaying enthusiasm and interest, and feeling empathy.

Be engaging, patient, and observant. Compliment strengths and efforts that are helpful to learning. (WOW! You did it!)

Ask questions.

Interact with students on an equal level, learning together.

Remember that everyone wants to appear and to feel smart in front of others.

Interpersonal skills and strategies that build comfortable relationships include:

o Establishing rapport
o Building trust
o Motivating students' interest
o Sharing each other’s cultures
o Being a role model by discussing your ways of learning and mistakes that helped you learn
o Appreciating cultural differences
o Anticipating, understanding and coping pleasantly with students' frustrations.

TEAMS tutors coach students by responding to needs, concerns, and backgrounds of children and adolescents in these ways:
o Completing homework assignments
o Understanding directions
o Increasing self-confidence
o Working independently
o Thinking critically
o Identifying key ideas
o Expressing themselves confidently in class
o Building English vocabulary for ELL students and for English speakers

Tutoring = Researching Learning

What has tutoring helped you to learn or do?
Who receives tutoring? Why?
Who do you think benefits from tutoring? How?
What will exceptional tutoring accomplish? When?
How is tutoring similar to and different from teaching? Who is helped? What occurs next?

Schools and Districts

external image Deerfield_Elementary_School_Front.JPG

For information about each school in the TEAMS Project, go to the School and District Profile page at the Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education.

Demographics of US Education

To understand the nature of education in our country, it is important to understand the changing demographics of American society.

Fast Facts: Back to School Statistics 2016 from the National Center for Education Statistics
  • 50.4 million students attend public elementary and secondary schools
  • White students will account for 24.6 million. The remaining 25.4 million are composed of
    • 7.8 million Black students,
    • 13.3 million Hispanic students,
    • 2.7 million Asian/Pacific Islander students,
    • 0.5 million American Indian/Alaska Native students,
    • 1.5 million students of Two or more races.
  • The percentage of students who are White is expected to continue declining as the enrollments of Hispanics, Asians/Pacific Islanders, and students of Two or more races increase through at least fall 2024, the last year for which projections are available.

Low-Income Students Now a Majority in the Nation's Public Schools from the Southern Education Foundation, 2015
  • In 40 of the 50 states, low income students comprised no less than 40 percent of all public schoolchildren.
  • In 21 states, children eligible for free or reduced-price lunches were a majority of the students in 2013.
  • Most of the states with a majority of low income students are found in the South and the West.
    • Mississippi led the nation with the most low-income students: ­71 percent, almost three out of every four public school children in Mississippi.
    • The nation’s second-most low income students was found in New Mexico, 68 percent of all public school students in 2013.

To learn more about demographic changes, see the report State of Metropolitan America from the Brookings Institution (May 11, 2010) with an interactive map to see demographic changes by state.

  • Whites are still a majority of the population, at 66 percent, down from 76 percent in 1990. Based on current Census Bureau projections, they will be in the minority by 2042, and far sooner, in 2023, for the under-18 population.

  • Nonwhites accounted for 83 percent of population growth in the United States between 2000 and 2008.

  • 85 percent of adults age 25 and older had at least a high school diploma in 2008—including those who earned a GED—up from 81.4 percent in 2000. Those with a four-year college degree grew to 28 percent, going up from 24 percent in 2000.

  • Percentages of both Hispanic and black adults, age 25 and older, who hold at least a high school diploma climbed by about 8 percentage points between 2000 and 2008. For Hispanics, it reached 61 percent, and for African-Americans, 81 percent, still well below the 90 percent of white adults with at least that credential.

  • College-completion rates also climbed for blacks and Hispanics, though by far smaller amounts, about 2 to 3 percentage points. 13 percent of Hispanic adults held a bachelor’s degree in 2008, and 17.5 percent of black adults, compared with nearly 31 percent of whites. For adults of Asian descent, the proportion was 50 percent.

Resources for thinking about tutoring and learning:

Class 1 Outline

All Class Opener

Greet Students as they arrive for class in small conversation groups

Introduction of the Course and Tutoring Sites

One/Two/Three Time Workshops
Sharon Workshop: Hula Hoops
and YoYos
Bob Workshop:
TEAMS Wiki as a
Tech Book

Online Assignment for Week Two
Third Workshop. Multiple Intelligences Test:

Site Meetings

Tutors Make Tentative Choices about Tutoring Site Placement

America Reads/America Counts

Fourth Credit Option

Graduate Student Assignments

Screen Shot 2016-10-28 at 12.13.15 PM.pngTEAMS Wiki as Tech Book Lesson Plan

TEAMS as a Pedagogy Course

  • Ask students how many have taken a course at UMass that used a paper textbook?
  • Ask students how many have taken a course at UMass that used online readings and homework?If
    • Turn to the person next to you and tell them In which format you learn best and why
  • How many hours a week do you average for the outside of class work for the classes you are taking at UMass
    • 0 to 3
    • 3 to 5
    • 5 or more
  • Ask students how many have taken a flipped learning course?
    • If you were asked to define flipped learning, what you would say

  • Have students take out there hand-held devices and go to the TEAMS-Tutoring in Schools wiki.
    • Save the URL
  • Show the home page with weekly course schedule and course topics
  • Go the Week 2 page and show students how the page is arranged
    • Intro video by Bob
    • Key Topics in different colors under the video
    • Assignment questions on a downloadable word.doc
    • Assignments feature reading, viewing and doing
      • Not just text-based readings
        • Video, learning games, podcasts, interactive websites
          • Use Google Translate to see the page in different languages
    • Do assignments in parts, not all at once
  • Have students in pairs open two resources on the page, review the resource and the questions
    • Talk in pairs about your impressions

A Pedagogy Course
  • Teacher of Students
  • Student of Teaching

Five Standards of Effective Pedagogy, Teaching Tolerance
  • Joint Productive Activity
  • Language Development
  • Contextualization
  • Challenging Activities
  • Instructional Conversation

Growth Mindset

Multimodal Resources and Tools

Multiple Intelligence Learning

This course, Education 497I/597r uses a wiki as a tech book to create a flipped learning structure where students do weekly reading and viewing activities online in preparation for large and small group learning activities during the in-person class time.


First U.S. Yo-Yo Patent, 1866
First U.S. Yo-Yo Patent, 1866

History of the YoYo from Time Magazine's All-Time 100 Greatest Toys

See also Chinese Yo-Yo History and Background

Yo-Yo History on YouTube

Duncan Toys 'The Original World #1 YoYos'

Hula hoopers at Easter Egg Roll, South Lawn of the White House, 2013
Hula hoopers at Easter Egg Roll, South Lawn of the White House, 2013

Hula Hoops

History of the Hula Hoop from Time Magazine's All-Time 100 Greatest Toys

See also Hula Hoop from the National Toy Hall of Fame

1000 BCE: Egyptian children played with large hoops of willow, rattan stiff grasses and dried grapevines.

1958. Wham-O Toy Company sold 25,000,000 hula hoops in the first two months after it was introduced.

Kids Tutor Each Other to Learn About Teaching

Guitar Zero: The New Musician and the Science of Learning